The storm could produce up to 16 total inches of rain in parts of coastal Texas through the middle of the week, the National Hurricane Center said.,

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Tropical Storm Nicholas, which formed on Sunday in the Gulf of Mexico, could bring heavy rains to coastal Texas and Louisiana on Monday and Tuesday as the 14th named storm of the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season continues to strengthen, the National Hurricane Center said.

A tropical storm warning is in effect for the coast of Texas, from the mouth of the Rio Grande to Freeport, Texas, about 60 miles south of Houston, the center said. Mexico has also issued a tropical storm warning from Barra El Mezquital north to the U.S.-Mexico border.

A hurricane watch is also in effect for the coast of Texas, from San Luis Pass to Port Aransas, about 40 miles east of Corpus Christi, the center said.

Nicholas could produce rainfall totals of eight to 16 inches, with isolated amounts of up to 20 inches, across portions of coastal Texas on Sunday and lasting through the middle of the week, the hurricane center said.

In southwest Louisiana and parts of eastern Texas, the storm could produce rainfall totals of 5 to 10 inches, which could cause “considerable flash and urban flooding,” the hurricane center said.

Forecasters said the center of the storm is expected to pass on Monday near or just offshore the coasts of northeastern Mexico and the southern parts of Texas. By early Tuesday morning, the storm will move onshore the southern and central coasts of Texas.

Nicholas is expected to strengthen until it reaches the northwestern part of the Gulf Coast on Monday night or early Tuesday morning, the center said. At 5 p.m. Eastern on Sunday, the storm was moving north-northwest at 40 miles per hour.

It has been a dizzying couple of months for meteorologists as the arrival of peak hurricane season — August through November — led to a run of named storms that formed in quick succession, bringing stormy weather, flooding and damaging winds to parts of the United States and the Caribbean.

Tropical Storm Mindy hit the Florida Panhandle on Sept. 8, just hours after it formed in the Gulf of Mexico. Hurricane Larry, which formed on Sept. 1, strengthened to a Category 3 storm two days later and then weakened. It struck Canada as a Category 1 hurricane and caused widespread power outages in Newfoundland.

Ida battered Louisiana as a Category 4 hurricane on Aug. 29 before its remnants brought deadly flooding to the New York area. Two other tropical storms, Julian and Kate, both fizzled out within a day at the same time.

Not long before them, in mid-August, Tropical Storm Fred made landfall in the Florida Panhandle and Hurricane Grace hit Haiti and Mexico. Tropical Storm Henri knocked out power and brought record rainfall to the Northeastern United States on Aug. 22.

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather ?

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather ?

Emily Kask for The New York Times

What is “landfall”? And what are you truly facing when you’re in the eye of the storm?

During hurricane season, news coverage and forecasts can include a host of confusing terms. Let’s take a look at what they mean ->

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather ?

You may read about hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones. So what’s the difference? Location.

“Hurricane” is largely used in the North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific; “typhoon,” in the Northwest Pacific; and “cyclone” in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.

The Atlantic season, when hurricanes and tropical storms are most likely to hit the U.S., runs from June 1 to Nov. 30.

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather ?

NOAA

Here’s what all these storms have in common: They’re low-pressure circular systems that form over warm waters. A system becomes a tropical storm when its winds exceed 39 miles an hour. At 74 miles an hour, it’s a hurricane.

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather ?

Forecasters regularly talk about parts of the storm like the eye, the eyewall and the wall cloud:

The eye of a storm is the circular area of relatively light winds, even shining sun, at its center. Conditions may be calm within the eye.

But wrapped around it is the eyewall, a ring of cumulonimbus clouds also known as a wall cloud. It contains the strongest winds of a hurricane.

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather ?

Tamir Kalifa for The New York Times

Perhaps counterintuitively, a storm doesn’t make landfall when its outer edge meets land.

Instead, landfall is when the eye crosses the shoreline.

Aug. 18, 2021

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The links between hurricanes and climate change are becoming more apparent. A warming planet can expect to see stronger hurricanes over time, and a higher incidence of the most powerful storms. But the overall number of storms could drop, because factors like stronger wind shear could keep weaker storms from forming.

Hurricanes are also becoming wetter because of more water vapor in the warmer atmosphere; scientists have suggested storms like Hurricane Harvey in 2017 produced far more rain than it would have without the human effects on climate. Also, rising sea levels are contributing to higher storm surge — the most destructive element of tropical cyclones.

A major United Nations climate report released in August warned that nations had delayed curbing their fossil-fuel emissions for so long that they could no longer stop global warming from intensifying over the next 30 years, leading to more frequent life-threatening heat waves and severe droughts. Tropical cyclones have likely become more intense over the past 40 years, the report said, a shift that cannot be explained by natural variability alone.

Ana became the first named storm of the season on May 23, making this the seventh year in a row that a named storm developed in the Atlantic Ocean before the official start of the season on June 1.

In May, scientists with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration forecast that there would be 13 to 20 named storms this year, six to 10 of which would be hurricanes, and three to five major hurricanes of Category 3 or higher in the Atlantic. In early August, in a midseason update to the forecast, they continued to warn that this year’s hurricane season would be an above-average one, suggesting a busy end to the season.

Matthew Rosencrans, of NOAA, said that an updated forecast suggested that there would be 15 to 21 named storms, including seven to 10 hurricanes, by the end of the season on Nov. 30. Nicholas is the 14th named storm of 2021.

Last year, there were 30 named storms, including six major hurricanes, forcing meteorologists to exhaust the alphabet for the second time and move to using Greek letters.

It was the highest number of storms on record, surpassing the 28 from 2005, and included the second-highest number of hurricanes on record.

Christopher Mele contributed reporting.